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Ipsec practical configurations for Linux Freeswan 1.x.

Jean-Francois Nadeau.

2001/05/09



News 2001/05/09:

I was at a LINUQ meeting tonight, a great Linux group in Quebec city promoting free software and Linux. They gave me the opportunity to introduce FreeSwan and VPNs to their members. My presentation (html) is available in french here. You can find the LINUQ group homepage here.

Introduction :

This tutorial describes the configuration needed to setup Ipsec tunnels in various situations such as RoadWarriors and NATed/Firewall gateways.

This document assumes you have already installed Freeswan and knows a bit of the Ipsec/Freeswan terminology. You should read the Freeswan documentation before use of the present document.

My Ipsec gateways are :

*** All IP addresses used in this document were selected randomly



The practical configurations covered are :

Simple subnet-to-subnet configuration (RSA).

Subnet-to-subnet configuration with a NATed gateway (RSA).

RoadWarrior configuration : Freeswan-to-Freeswan (RSA).

RoadWarrior configuration : NAI's PGPnet-to-Freeswan (PSK).

RoadWarrior configuration : IRE's Safenet SoftPK-to-Freeswan (PSK).

Using a central Ipsec gateway as a "tunnel hub".

Expanding NT domain logon validation and network browsing through IPSec tunnels.

Subnet-to-Subnet : Win2000-to-Freeswan (PSK).




Simple Subnet-to-Subnet configuration.

This is the simplest case and easiest to setup. We have 2 LANs that we want to link together through the Internet. Each LAN is connected to the internet via router or firewall with static IP adresses. For example :






Both Ipsec gateways will have the same ipsec.conf configuration file.

ipsec.conf

ipsec.secrets*

config setup

interfaces="ipsec0=eth0"

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=0


conn site1-site2

left=207.151.222.2

leftsubnet=192.168.1.0/24

leftnexthop=207.151.222.1

right=172.35.55.8

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=172.35.55.1

auto=start

authby=rsasig

leftid=@sg1.yourdomain.com

rightid=@sg2.yourdomain.com

leftrsasigkey=0x--left-public-key

rightrsasigkey=0x--right-public-key

: rsa {

# 256 bits, Thu Apr 13 00:29:47 2000

# for signatures only, UNSAFE FOR ENCRYPTION

#pubkey=0x01035c3c464da4fb8c9a61fb8c798d91a5

Modulus: 0x5c3c464da4fb8c9a61fb8c798d91a5d5946

PublicExponent: 0x03

# everything after this point is secret

PrivateExponent:0x3d7d525dbc41525da65e61193848

Prime1: 0x9c9e5f3bd5d345020052560b8a2a0bd4dd9

Prime2: 0x96c34af8e1d95fc3454551fc29f15a4c69b79

Exponent1: 0x686994d28e8ac0036e407b1715d3893b

Exponent2: 0x648231fb413b952e5152c6a0e6dd9bcfb

Coefficient: 0x05ac43c3b6a5d192f392c521b98334d6

}



*Not truly valid, you should create a RSA signature of at least 1024 bits on each gateway. And be carefull with the necessary whites spaces. On each gateway :


/usr/local/lib/ipsec/ipsec rsasigkey 1024 >> mykey


Then paste the key in /etc/ipsec.secrets. Finally, paste the value from the field #pubkey into the coresponding rsasigkey parameter in the ipsec.conf file.


Restart the ipsec service on both gateways and observe the logs for any errors.


This configuration assumes that both Ipsec gateways use the interface eth0 to reach the internet. Most default values were used here for simplicity.


Both gateways must have IP forwarding turned on to allow packets from the leftsubnet to reach the rightsubnet and vice-versa. Ipchains must be installed and used to permit traffic from leftsubnet to rightsubnet.


Remember that Ipsec is as secure as your gateways are. I recommend to only accept Ipsec traffic on the interface visible to Internet. On the left gateway :


# Default policies

/sbin/ipchains -P input ACCEPT

/sbin/ipchains -P forward DENY

# Only allow ipsec traffic, ESP and AH from and to the Internet

/sbin/ipchains -A input -p UDP -d 207.151.222.2/32 500 -j ACCEPT

/sbin/ipchains -A input -p 50 -d 207.151.222.2/32 -j ACCEPT

/sbin/ipchains -A input -p 51 -d 207.151.222.2/32 -j ACCEPT

# Allows internal subnet access

/sbin/ipchains -A input -s 192.168.1.0/24 -j ACCEPT

# Allows traffic from and to internal LANs

/sbin/ipchains -A forward -b -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 192.168.2.0/24 -j ACCEPT

# Default input policy back to deny

/sbin/ipchains -P input DENY



Disable any unused services (inetd.conf) and protect the remaining services called from inetd (hosts.allow and hosts.deny). Do not run daemons that should not resides on a security gate. I.e DNS, Sendmail and such services with a big security history. I often run SSH on those gateways, its the only backdoor if your tunnel stops working. If using SSH here horrifies you, use a good internal PPP access with callback support... just in case.


That's it for the simple subnet-to-subnet case. The tricky ones coming...




Subnet-to-Subnet configuration with a NATed gateway.


This is the first tricky configuration as one of the gateways is behind a router/firewall doing Network Address Translation (NAT). I use the term NAT here for a 1 to 1 translation. I.e one external IP address is converted to 1 internal IP address and vice-versa. This is not masquerading or PAT. This configuration can only work using ESP, because AH does not support modifications in the IP header. As of Freeswan 1.3, this configuration also only works with RSA authentication. For example :




The difference is that the left gateway is no longer being exposed directly to the Internet. The trick here is to have 2 different configuration files :


Left gateway's ipsec.conf

Right gateway's ipsec.conf

config setup

interfaces=%defaultroute

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=0


conn site1-site2

left=%defaulroute

leftsubnet=192.168.1.0/24

leftnexthop=

right=172.35.55.8

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=172.35.55.1

auto=start

authby=rsasig

leftid=@sg1.yourdomain.com

rightid=@sg2.yourdomain.com

leftrsasigkey=0x--left-public-key

rightrsasigkey=0x--right-public-key

config setup

interfaces=%defaultroute

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=0


conn site1-site2

left=210.31.25.4

leftsubnet=192.168.1.0/24

leftnexthop=210.31.25.1

right=%defaultroute

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=

auto=start

authby=rsasig

leftid=@sg1.yourdomain.com

rightid=@sg2.yourdomain.com

leftrsasigkey=0x--left-public-key

rightrsasigkey=0x--right-public-key


The right gateway only have to see left as its external NATed address. This work because authentication is based on @sgx.yourdomain.com, not on a real IP address ( the @ says to KLIPS to not resolve that name to an IP. No need to put registered hosts names here).


Proceed the same way as the simple subnet-to-subnet configuration for your ipsec.secrets files.


The NAT/Firewall device was in fact a CISCO 1600 router in my setup. Don't forget that the router's access-lists (IOS) or firewall rules must let pass UDP 500 and ESP (50) for that setup to work.


Altough I did not had the chance to test it, this could work even if both gateways are NATed, if you adjust the configuration.




RoadWarrior Configuration : Freeswan-To-Freeswan.


This setup is usefull for moving users with laptop to connect to a central network using Ipsec.

As most of the time they will be using a modem over an async connection to the ISP, my example describes that case.




The difficulties of this configuration origins from the fact that the initiator of the tunnel IP configuration (DHCP) is volatile and unknown from the right gateway. The configuration will have to reflect that situation and permit multiple users to connect at the same time. :


Left gateway's ipsec.conf

Right gateway's ipsec.conf

config setup

interfaces=%defaultroute

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=1


conn Road-Central

left=%defaultroute

leftsubnet=

leftnexthop=

right=172.35.55.8

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=172.35.55.1

auto=start

authby=rsasig

leftid=@rw1.yourdomain.com

rightid=@sg2.yourdomain.com

leftrsasigkey=0x--left-public-key

rightrsasigkey=0x--right-public-key

config setup

interfaces="ipsec0=eth0"

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=1


conn Road-Central

left=0.0.0.0

leftsubnet=

leftnexthop=

right=172.35.55.8

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=172.35.55.1

auto=add

authby=rsasig

leftid=@rw1.yourdomain.com

rightid=@sg2.yourdomain.com

leftrsasigkey=0x--left-public-key

rightrsasigkey=0x--right-public-key


This setup works well with RSA authentication, and can work with PSK if you update ipsec.secrets automaticly on the RoadWarrior (had a script to do that).


To bring the ipsec tunnel up as I connect to the internet, I usually remove Ipsec from start-up :

/sbin/chkconfig --del ipsec


And bring the ipsec service up and down with my PPP interface through ip-up.local and ip.down.local in the /etc/ppp directory. Don't forget to make those executable.


You can NOT have both RSA and PSK RoadWarriors as of Freeswan 1.3.


Some tips about routing & RoadWarriors :




RoadWarrior configuration : NAI's PGPnet-to-Freeswan


Using Windows clients to access Freeswan is for me the key to integration of IPSec and the desktop. NAI's PGPnet is great for that task . It is pretty stable and transparent for the user. Remember that only the commercial copy of PGPnet can do tunnels as I will show in this example :




Here's the steps needed to setup PGPnet on the Win32 client (letfgateway) for that configuration (refer to NAI's documentation for installation) :


Steps

How to do it

Set up the adapter connected to the internet.

Start - Program - PGP - Set Adapter

Select the network adapter connected to the internet

Launch the PGPnet configuration tool and set defaults options

Start - Program - PGP - PGPnet

View - Options

General Panel :

Expert Mode

Allow communications with unconfigured hosts

Require valid authentication key

Cache passphrases between logins

*IKE Duration : 6h

*IPsec : 6h

Advanced panel :

Selected options :

Ciphers : Tripple DES

Hashes : MD5

Diffie-Hellman : 1024 and 1536

Compression : LZS and Deflate

Make the IKE proposal :

Shared-Key - MD5 - 3DES -1024 bits on top of the list

Make the IPSec proposal :

NONE - MD5-TrippleDES -NONE on top of the list

Select Perfect Forward Secrecy = 1024 bits

Press OK

Create the connection's definition.

In the Hosts panel, ADD

Name : Enter a name for the right gateway

IPaddress : Enter its IP address visible to the internet (172.35.55.8)

Select Secure Gateway

Set shared Paraphrase : enter you preshared key

Identity type : select IP address

Identity : enter 0.0.0.0

Remote Authentication : select Any valid key

Press Ok

Select the newly created entry for the right gateway and click ADD, YES

Name : Enter a name for the central subnet

IP address : Enter its network IP address (192.168.2.0)

Select Insecure Subnet

Subnet Mask : enter its subnetmask (255.255.255.0)

Press OK, YES, YES

Test it

Ping 192.168.2.1


*I choosed to rekey faster that Freeswan to solve a common rekeying problem with Win32 Ipsec clients.


Some Screenshots of that configuration.


Ipsec.conf and ipsec.secrets on right gateway :


ipsec.conf

Ipsec.secrets

config setup

interfaces="ipsec0=eth0"

klipsdebug=none

plutodebug=none

plutoload=%search

plutostart=%search


conn %default

keyingtries=1


conn rw_pgp-site2

left=0.0.0.0

leftsubnet=

leftnexthop=

right=172.35.55.8

rightsubnet=192.168.2.0/24

rightnexthop=172.35.55.1

authby=secret

auto=add

0.0.0.0 172.35.55.8 "mypresharedkey"


All your RoadWarriors will have to share the same PreShared Key.


See my tips about routing and RoadWarriors.



RoadWarrior Configuration : IRE's SafeNet/SoftPK-to- Freeswan


Using the same example as for PGPnet :




IRE's SafeNet/SoftPK (3DES) is a much lighter software to do Ipsec tunnels but does not integrates PGP in emails and local encryption. If your only goal is to do some Ipsec tunnels on a Win32 desktop, SafeNet is the good choice as it is cheaper than NAI's PGPnet.


Its configuration is not complex and works in most cases (exept with ADSL as it does not support a PPPoe interface).


Lets do the Safenet's setup on the Win32 desktop (left gateway) for the configuration above :


Steps

How to do it

Launch the Safenet Security Editor and create a new Security Policy.

Start - Program - Safenet Soft-PK - Security Policy Editor

File - New Connection

Enter a name for the connection

Set the connection's parameters

Select the newly created connection :

Connection Security : Secure

Remote Party Identity and Adressing : Select IP Subnet

Enter the rightsubnet (192.168.2.0)

Enter its netmask (255.255.255.0)

Protocol : ALL

Select Connect using Secure Gateway Tunnnel

ID Type : Select IP Address

Enter right gateway IP address (172.35.55.8)


Expand the properties of the connection (left pane):

Select the Identity branch.

Select Certificate = none

ID Type : Select IP Address

Port : Select ALL

Local Network Interface : Select the interface used to reach the internet.

Click on Pre-Shared Key and enter your pre-shared key.


Select the Security Policy branch

Phase 1 negociation mode : Main Mode

Select Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy

PFS Key Group : Diffie-Hellman Group 2

Select Enable Replay Protection.


Expand the properties of the Security Policy (left pane) :

Expand the properties of Authentication

Select the Proposal 1 branch

Authentication Method : Pre-shared Key

Encrypt Alg : Tripple DES

Hash Alg : MD5

SA Life : Seconds - 18000

Key Group :

Diffie-Hellman Group 1 (Safenet 1.x)

Diffie-Hellman Group 2 (Safenet 2.x)


Expand the properties of Key Exchange

Select the Proposal 1 branch

Select Encapsulation Protocol (ESP)

Encrypt Alg : Tripple DES

Hash Alg : MD5

SA Life : Seconds - 18000


File - Save Changes

Test it.

Ping 192.168.2.1


All your RoadWarriors will have to share the same PreShared Key.


The right gateway's configuration (Freeswan) will be the same as the previous example.


As I said earlier, the troubleshooting is a lot easier checking the logs on the responder (right gateway). Most of the problems origins from configuration errors and typos like different netmasks entered on each side.


See my tips about routing and RoadWarriors.


Using a central Ipsec gateway as a "tunnel hub"


If you got multiples subnets connected to a central one, lets say a few remote locations connected to your headquarters, you might want to connect them all using Ipsec to permit communications between those remotes locations. You could create a mesh, i.e a connection from one locations to each others on all your gateways. If you got only 2 or 3 remote locations, this will work. But as you add more and more locations, it is gonna be a pain to administer as you will have to update all your ipsec gateways each time you add another tunnel. If you got 10 or more locations, this could become impossible to maintain ( 10*10 = 100 tunnels !).


Using one central location as a "tunnel hub" simplifies connecting all those subnets together, as only one tunnel is added for a new location. There are 3 drawbacks to that solution :



That configuration might look like this :




The remote locations are on the left side and the headquarters on the right.

We want the subnets 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24 and 192.168.3.0/24 to communicate with each others and with the central network 192.168.0.0/24.


The trick to make this work is on the graphic... all remote locations are on a C class network just as the central location. But each SA are for a longer netmask at the central site. Each remote location will create a tunnel from their subnet to the central subnet 192.168.0.0/16. But the central subnet is a 192.168.0.0/24 network.When this is done, the central Ipsec gateway will have an eroute for each remote network. When someone on a remote location wants to talk to another remote location, lets say 192.168.1.8 to 192.168.2.16, it thinks the destination is on the central network, but the central Ipsec gateway have a specific eroute for the 192.168.2.0/24 network, so it routes the packet through the good tunnel for that remote location.

Networks :

Central subnet : 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0

Remote location 1 : 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0

Remote location 2 : 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0

Remote location 3 : 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0


Ipsec tunnels :

192.168.1.0/24 --> 192.168.0.0/16 for remote location 1

192.168.2.0/24 --> 192.168.0.0/16 for remote location 2

192.168.3.0/24 --> 192.168.0.0/16 for remote location 3


The configuration is the same as the Simple subnet-to-subnet case, just remember the network mask trick and everything should work.


You can control wich remote locations can talk to another by adjusting your forwarding rules with ipchains on the central ipsec gateway.




Subnet-to-Subnet configuration : Win2000-to-Freeswan (PSK).


This is the most complex configuration, because of microsoft's strange way to represent a connection and its parameters. This section is far from being complete, as I did not find any simple way to explain this in details yet without making you get crazy through all the menus and options, I will at first try to explain Microsoft's logic of a tunnel mode connection.


We can use the simple subnet-to-subnet case as a model :





A connection in Microsoft's terminology is a Security Policy. An Ipsec Security Policy is configurable through an MMC console with the IP Security management Snap-in added.


When you create a new IP Security Policy (a connection) you must define rules for the traffic going throught it. You must define at least 2 rules for a tunnel mode connection to work :



A rule defines a :


Ipsec/IKE proposals, rekeying settings and PFS are defined inside the Filter Action.


This logic can be very confusing, as you can go from properties menus inside properties menus.

Ouch !


The generics steps I recommend to make this setup work are :


  1. Create a new MMC console and add the IP Security management Snap-in.

  2. Create a new security policy.

  3. Create a rule for the traffic from left-to-right.

  4. Edit that rule and create a IP Filter that specifies the source address as the leftsubnet and the destination address as the rightsubnet.

  5. Specify to Require Security on that IP Filter.

  6. Edit that Filter Action, enable Perfect Forward Secrecy, and make the Ipsec proposal 3DES-MD5 on top of the list.

  7. Specify the enpoint to be the right gateway's IP address.

  8. Enter your preshared key.

  9. Create a rule for the traffic from right-to-left.

  10. Edit that rule and create a IP Filter that specifies the source address as the rightsubnet and the destination address as the leftsubnet.

  11. Specify to Require Security on that IP Filter.

  12. Edit that Filter Action, enable Perfect Forward Secrecy, and make the Ipsec proposal 3DES-MD5 on top of the list.

  13. Specify the enpoint to be the letf gateway's IP address.

  14. Enter your preshared key.

  15. Save your changes

  16. Select you Security Policy, and Assign it through the Action Menu.


Test it :


  1. Ping a host on the other subnet, it should say at first "Negociating IP security".

  2. Ping it again to see if it works.

  3. Check the EventViewer for any errors.

  4. Check the logs on the Freeswan gateway for any errors.

  5. Run the ipsecmon program to see the connection status.



The longest SCREENSHOTS you've never seen to setup the previous example. 900 KB...you've been warned ;).


HINTS & LIMITATIONS :



I will need feedbacks to make this section clear, so don't hesitate to send me some comments !




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